Capital and the largest city of Iran in an area of 600sq km. It is located in the northern part of the country. Tehran is Iran’s administrative,
economic, and cultural center as well as the major industrial and transportation center of the region. The city sits on the slopes of the Alborz
Mountains at an elevation of about 1210 m., on the north-western fringes of the Dasht-e Kevir, a desert in central Iran. Most of the growth is
channelled along an east-west axis and toward the south, to the north, the city is constrained by the steep Alborz Mountains. Most commercial and government buildings are located in the center of the city. Residential structures predominate elsewhere. The climate has marked
seasonal contrasts, with short springs and autumns separating cold winters and hot, dry summers.
Tehran is the latest and the largest capital city in the 7000-year history of Persia, as Iran was called by many people in the west before 1935. The original settlement of Tehran, north of the ancient city of Rey, may have been founded as early as the 4th century. By the early 13th
century it was a small village. In 1221 invading Mongols led by Chenghis Khan destroyed Rey, but Tehran survived and grew slowly in the
following centuries. During the reign of the Safavid Shah Tahmasb (1524-1576) a wall and four watchtowers were built around the city, and by the early 17th century Tehran had about 3000 houses. In the 1720s Afghan invaders attacked Tehran. The town defeated the initial Afghan force but fell to the main Afghan army and suffered tremendously under their occupation from 1723 to 1729. Nader Shah freed Tehran in 1729. In 1788 Aqa Mohammad Khan, founder of the Qajar dynasty, made Tehran his capital, inaugurating the modern history of Tehran. At this time Tehran’s population was estimated to be 15,000. Under the Qajar dynasty (1786-1925), Tehran grew in population and size, and new administrative buildings, palaces, mosques, and garrisons were constructed.
In 1925 Reza Shah Pahlavi seized control of Iran and accelerated the gradual concentration of government functions and commerce in Tehran. The city walls were torn down, wide streets were cut through the old districts, and commercial strips grew along the new streets, challenging Tehran’s once-dominant bazaar. A newer, wealthier section of the city developed on the north, and a distinct rift was created between modern, northern Tehran and traditional, southern Tehran. This trend continued through the rule of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who ruled Iran from 1941 to 1979. There are numerous historic and geographical attractions in Tehran well worth visiting as well as museums, bazaars, parks etc. just to mention a few continue reading.
During the reign of the Safavid Shah Abbas 1, a vast garden called Chahar Bagh (Four Gardens), a governmental residence and a Chenarestan (a grove of plane trees) were created on the present site of the Golestân Palace and its surroundings. Then, Karim Khan Zand ordered the
construction of a citadel, a rampart and a number of towers in the same area. In the Qajar period, some royal buildings were gradually erected within the citadel; for instance, in 1813 which coincided with the fifth year of the reign of Fath Ali Shah, the eastern part of the royal garden was extended and some other palaces were built around the garden, called the Golestan Garden.
Takht-e Marmar Edifice
The Takht-e Marmar (Marble Throne) structure was built by Karim Khan Zand between the years 1747 and 1751 which is in the first three years of his region. Aqa Mohammad Khan
Qajar (1779-96 A.D.) decided to have it perfected. In 1791 following the order of this Qajar king a great deal of building materials, pieces of painting and decorations, belonging to the Royal Palace of Karim Khan were removed from Shiraz to Tehran to be used in the Takht-e Mannar edifice. Upon the orders of Fath Ali Shah Qajar in 1806 a big marble throne was made which is now to be found in the center of the main iwan of the palace. The actual name of the Marble Throne is ” Takht-e Solayman”. All around the iwan there remain lots of paintings and
decorations belonging to the Qajar period. After Fath All Shah’s death, the other Qajar kings followed the example of their ancestors in perfecting the decorations and adorning the
buildings of the Palace.
The highest mountain in Iran, has for centuries attracted mountaineers, nomads and legends to its snow-covered slopes. The epic hero
Fereidun wrestled and defeated the evil giant Zahhak, chaining him to a cave on the mountain peak. Villagers living near the base of the
volcano still remark that Zahhak is straining to be free at the first signs of smoke or rumblings often heard deep within the mountain. On a clear day, the 18,600-foot cone is visible from Tehran, fifty miles away.